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EU: the new 2009/125/CE eco-compatible directive on transformers

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    The aim is to reduce losses and gain in efficiency. GBE are ready, thanks to their high efficiency transformers production.

     

    The global commitment for energy efficiency and emissions reduction keeps moving on. The newest European Union Legislation 548/2014 sets the new standards about eco-compatible designing, imposing a drastic reduction on losses of new transformers launched on the market.

    According to a survey led by the EU, in 2008 the EU27 transformers machinery stock suffered annual losses up to 93.4TWh; the aim is now very ambitious: the annual losses rate has to decrease down to 16.2THw per year within 2025, equal to 3.7Mt of CO2 emissions.

    The new regulation – valid in every EU Country, together with Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland – will be effective from July 1st 2015, whereas further emissions reduction is already scheduled from July 1st 2021.

    The directive defines specific rules to be observed in the design of eco-compatible distribution and power transformers.

    GBE were prepared for this new directive, as they had already been offering a production line of high efficiency transformers, that perfectly fit the new limits introduced by the European Standards.

    Actually, GBE have gone even further: their catalogue, includes any kind of transformer, for any kind of special application and offers other technical solutions such as transformers with amorphous core. These units guarantee losses  levels even lower than the newly imposed ones. It’s a winning technological innovation that will certainly spread around the world for two main reasons: on the one side it complies with the new restrictive regulations, on the other it guarantees much lower application costs, that will pay back the initial investment.

     

    Definitions:

    Medium power transformer: means a power transformer with a highest voltage for equipment higher than 1,1 kV, but not exceeding 36 kV and a rated power equal to or higher than 5 kVA but lower than 40 MVA.

    Large power transformer: means a power transformer with a highest voltage for equipment exceeding 36 kV and a rated power equal or higher than 5 kVA, or a rated power equal to or higher than 40 MVA regardless of the highest voltage for equipment.

    Medium power pole mounted transformer: means a power transformer with a rated power of up to 315 kVA suitable for outdoor service and designed to be mounted on the support structures of overhead power lines.

    Peak Efficiency Index (PEI): means the maximum value of the ratio of the transmitted apparent power of a transformer minus the electrical losses to the transmitted apparent power of the transformer.

     

    FORMULA

     

    This Regulation shall not apply to transformers specifically designed and used for the following applications:

     

    —Instrument transformers, specifically designed to supply measuring instruments, meters, relays and other similar apparatus;

    — Transformers with low-voltage windings specifically designed for use with rectifiers to provide a DC supply;

    — Transformers specifically designed to be directly connected to a furnace;

    — Transformers specifically designed for offshore applications and floating offshore applications;

    — Transformers specially designed for emergency installations;

    — Transformers and auto-transformers specifically designed for railway feeding systems,

    — Earthing or grounding transformers, that is to say, three-phase transformers intended to provide a neutral point for system grounding purposes;

    — Traction transformers mounted on rolling stock, that is to say, transformers connected to an AC or DC contact line, directly or through a converter, used in fixed installations of railway applications;

    — Starting transformers, specifically designed for starting three-phase induction motors so as to eliminate supply voltage dips;

    — Transformers specifically designed for explosion-proof and underground mining applications;

    — Transformers specifically designed for deep water (submerged) application;

    — Medium Voltage (MV) to Medium Voltage (MV) interface transformers up to 5 MVA;

    — Large power transformers (maximum voltage higher than 36kv or rated power higher than 40MVA) where it is demonstrated that for a particular application, technically feasible alternatives are not available to meet the minimum efficiency requirements set out by this Regulation;

    —Large power transformers, which are used as replacements in the same physical       location/installation for existing large power transformers, where this replacement cannot be achieved without entailing disproportionate costs associated to their transportation and/or installation.

     

     

     

    Requirements for three-phase medium power liquid-immersed transformers with rated power

    ≤ 3 150 kVA, one winding with Um ≤ 24 kV and the other one with Um ≤ 1,1 kV

     

     

    Table 1

    Tier 1 (from 1 July 2015) Tier 2 (from 1 July 2021)
    Rated Power (kVA) Maximum load losses Pk (W)(*) Maximum no-load losses Po (W)(*) Maximum load losses Pk (W)(*) Maximum no-load losses Po (W)(*)
    ≤ 25 Ck (900) A0 (70) Ak (600) A0 -10% (63)
    50 Ck (1100) A0 (90) Ak (750) A0 -10% (81)
    100 Ck (1750) A0 (145) Ak (1250) A0 -10% (130)
    160 Ck (2350) A0 (210) Ak (1750) A0 -10% (189)
    250 Ck (3250) A0 (300) Ak (2350) A0 -10% (270)
    315 Ck (3900) A0 (360) Ak (2800) A0 -10% (324)
    400 Ck (4600) A0 (430) Ak (3250) A0 -10% (387)
    500 Ck (5500) A0 (510) Ak (3900) A0 -10% (459)
    630 Ck (6500) A0 (600) Ak (4600) A0 -10% (540)
    800 Ck (8400) A0 (650) Ak (6000) A0 -10% (585)
    1000 Ck (10500) A0 (770) Ak (7600) A0 -10% (693)
    1250 Bk (11000) A0 (950) Ak (9500) A0 -10% (855)
    1600 Bk (14000) A0 (1200) Ak (12000) A0 -10% (1080)
    2000 Bk (18000) A0 (1450) Ak (15000) A0 -10% (1305)
    2500 Bk (22000) A0 (1750) Ak (18500) A0 -10% (1575)
    3150 Bk (27500) A0 (2200) Ak (23000) A0 -10% (1980)

     

    (*) Maximum losses for kVA ratings that fall in between the ratings given in Table I.1 shall be obtained by linear interpolation.

     

     

     

    Requirements for three-phase medium power dry-type transformers with rated power ≤ 3 150 kVA, one winding with Um ≤ 24 kV and the other one with Um ≤ 1,1 kV

     

    Table 2

    Tier 1 (from 1 July 2015) Tier 2 (from 1 July 2021)
    Rated Power (kVA) Maximum load losses Pk (W)(*) Maximum no-load losses Po (W)(*) Maximum load losses Pk (W)(*) Maximum no-load losses Po (W)(*)
    ≤50 Bk (1700) A0 (200) Ak (1500) A0 -10% (180)
    100 Bk (2050) A0 (280) Ak (1800) A0 -10% (252)
    160 Bk (2900) A0 (400) Ak (2600) A0 -10% (360)
    250 Bk (3800) A0 (520) Ak (3400) A0 -10% (468)
    400 Bk (5500) A0 (750) Ak (4500) A0 -10% (675)
    630 Bk (7600) A0 (1100) Ak (7100) A0 -10% (990)
    800 Ak (8000) A0 (1300) Ak (8000) A0 -10% (1170)
    1000 Ak (9000) A0 (1550) Ak (9000) A0 -10% (1395)
    1250 Ak (11000) A0 (1800) Ak (11000) A0 -10% (1620)
    1600 Ak (13000) A0 (2200) Ak (13000) A0 -10% (1980)
    2000 Ak (16000) A0 (2600) Ak (16000) A0 -10% (2340)
    2500 Ak (19000) A0 (3100) Ak (19000) A0 -10% (2790)
    3150 Ak (22000) A0 (3800 ) Ak (22000) A0 -10% (3420)

     

    (*) Maximum losses for kVA ratings that fall in between the ratings given in Table I.2 shall be obtained by linear interpolation.

     

    Following losses corrections are considered in case of different winding voltage combinations:

     

    Table 3

    One winding with Um ≤ 24 kV and the other with Um > 1,1 kV The maximum allowable losses in Tables I.1 and I.2 shall be increased by 10 % for no load losses and by 10 % for load losses
    One winding with Um = 36 kV and the other with Um ≤ 1,1 kV The maximum allowable losses in Tables I.1 and I.2 shall be increased by 15 % for no load losses and by 10 % for load losses
    One winding with Um = 36 kV and the other with Um > 1,1 kV The maximum allowable losses indicated in Tables I.1 and I.2 shall be increased by 20 % for no load losses and by 15 % for load losses
    Case of dual voltage on one winding In case of transformers with one high-voltage winding and two voltages available from a tapped low-voltage winding, losses shall be calculated based on the higher voltage of the low-voltage winding and shall be in compliance with the maximum allowable losses in Tables I.1 and 1.2. The maximum available power on the lower voltage of the low-voltage winding on such transformers shall be limited to 0,85 of the rated power assigned to the low-voltage winding at its higher voltage.
    In case of transformers with one low-voltage winding with two voltages available from a tapped high-voltage winding, losses shall be calculated based on the higher voltage of the high-voltage winding and shall be in compliance with the maximum allowable losses in Tables I.1 and I.2., The maximum available power on the lower voltage of the high-voltage winding on such transformer shall be limited to 0,85 of the rated power assigned to the high-voltage winding at its higher voltage.
    If the full nominal power is available regardless of the combination of voltages, the levels of losses indicated in Tables I.1 and I.2 can be increased by 15 % for no load losses and by 10 % for load losses.
    Case of dual voltage on both windings The maximum allowable losses in Tables I.1 and I.2 can be increased by 20 % for no load losses and by 20 % for load losses for transformers with dual voltage on both windings. The level of losses is given for the highest possible rated power and on the basis that the rated power is the same regardless of the combination of voltages.

     

     

    Requirements for three –phase medium power liquid immersed transformers, with rated power

    >3150kVA:

     

    Table 4

     

    Tier 1 (1 July 2015) Tier 2 (1 July 2021)
    Rated Power (kVA) Minimum Peak Efficiency Index (%)
    3150 < Sr ≤ 4000 99,465 99,532
    5000 99,483 99,548
    6300 99,510 99,571
    8000 99,535 99,593
    10000 99,560 99,615
    12500 99,588 99,640
    16000 99,615 99,663
    20000 99,639 99,684
    25000 99,657 99,700
    31500 99,671 99,712
    40000 99,684 99,724

     

     

    Requirements for three –phase medium power dry-type transformers, with rated power

    >3150kVA:

     

    Tabella 5

    Tier 1 (1 July 2015) Tier 2 (1 July 2021)
    Rated Power (kVA) Minimum Peak Efficiency Index (%)
    3150 < Sr ≤ 4000 99,348 99,382
    5000 99,354 99,387
    6300 99,356 99,389
    8000 99,357 99,390
    ≥10000 99,357 99,390

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Requirements for for liquid immersed large power transformers:

     

    Tabella 6

    Tier 1 (1 July 2015) Tier 2 (1 July 2021)
    Rated Power (MVA) Minimum Peak Efficiency Index (%)
    ≤ 4 99,465 99,532
    5 99,483 99,548
    6.3 99,510 99,571
    8 99,535 99,593
    10 99,560 99,615
    12.5 99,588 99,640
    16 99,615 99,663
    20 99,639 99,684
    25 99,657 99,700
    31.5 99,671 99,712
    40 99,684 99,724
    50 99,696 99,734
    63 99,709 99,745
    80 99,723 99,758
    ≥100 99,737 99,770

     

    Requirements for for dry-type large power transformers:

     

    Tabella 7

    Tier 1 (1 July 2015) Tier 2 (1 July 2021)
    Rated Power (MVA) Minimum Peak Efficiency Index (%)
    ≤ 4 99,158 99,225
    5 99,200 99,265
    6.3 99,242 99,303
    8 99,298 99,356
    10 99,330 99,385
    12.5 99,370 99,422
    16 99,416 99,464
    20 99,468 99,513
    25 99,521 99,564
    31.5 99,551 99,592
    40 99,567 99,607
    50 99,585 99,623
    63 99,590 99,626

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Requirements for medium power pole-mounted liquid immersed transformers with rated power between 25kVA and 315kVA:

     

    Tabella 8

     

    Tier 1 (1 July 2015) Tier 2 (1 July 2021)
    Rated Power (kVA) Maximum load losses (in W)(*) Maximum no-load losses (in W)(*) Maximum load losses (in W)(*) Maximum no-load losses (in W)(*)
    25 Ck (900) A0 (70) Bk (725) A0 (70)
    50 Ck (1100) A0 (90) Bk (875) A0 (90)
    100 Ck (1750) A0 (145) Bk (1475) A0 (145)
    160 Ck +32% (3102) C0 (300) Ck +32%  (3102) C0 – 10% (270)
    200 Ck (2750) C0 (356) Bk (2333) B0 (310)
    250 Ck (3250) C0 (425) Bk (2750) B0 (360)
    315 Ck (3900) C0 (520) Bk (3250) B0 (440)

     

    (*)Maximum allowable losses for kVA ratings that fall in between the ratings given in Table I.6 shall be obtained by linear interpolation.

     

     

     

    Requirements for medium power transformers with rated power ≤ 3 150 kVA equipped with tapping connections suitable for operation while on-load or for voltage regulation distribution transformers :

     

    the maximum allowable levels of losses set out in Tables I.1 and I.2 shall be increased by 20 % for no-load losses and 5 % for load losses in Tier 1 and by 10 % for no load losses in Tier 2.

     

    EU Regulation is valid only for transformers purchased after its entrance into force, that is to say from July 1st 2015.

     

    From July 1st 2015, the following product information on transformers shall be included in any related product documentation: information on rated power, load loss and no-load loss, electrical power of any cooling system, information on the weight of all the main components of a power transformer.

    For medium and large power transformers, the value of the Peak Efficiency Index and the power at which it occurs.

    For dual voltage transformers, the maximum rated power at the lower voltage.

    For medium power pole mounted transformers, a visible display ‘For pole-mounted operation only’.

     

     


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